This course studies the history of the Church from ca. 1500 until 1965. It addresses theological literature, popular religion, doctrinal developments, the role of the papacy, and the interaction between Christianity and culture. Selected primary works are studied along with significant, modern, scholarly commentary. Particular attention is paid to current revisions of distorted interpretations of the Renaissance papacy, the Reformation, the Galileo case, the Church and science, Modernism, Liberalism, and Vatican II.